Practice Essay Questions For Exam 2

You will get the test on Friday, after class. It is due Sunday at midnight.
Essay questions from previous exams:

1. For the 10 steps of glycolysis, describe each reaction. What happens to the reactant? Use chemical terms to describe the reaction (ie: SN2, E2, what was reduced, what was oxidized, etc.) Describe how each reaction is controlled. More details = more points.

2. Describe how liver cells are controlled so that glycolysis and gluconeogenesis do not occur simultaneously. Give specific details about the regulation by insulin and glucagon. Give specific details about the reactions that are regulated. What enzyme, how is it regulated? Include details about any of the following control mechanisms that are involved: allosteric modulation, reversible covalent modification, protein-protein binding.

3. There are two dehydrogenase enzymes that are very similar. The have the same mechanism, but different substrates and products. Both are needed to metabolize the end product of glycolysis. What are the two enzymes? Describe all of the steps of one of these enzymes. Describe how the two enzymes are different and how they are the same.

4. Citrate is used to preserve red blood cells and it is in the replacement fluid for returning a plasma donor’s red blood cells after apheresis. Citrate is an anticoagulant and it is substrate for gluconeogenesis. Describe the reactions in a red blood cell that could be used to make ATP from citrate.

5. The pentose phosphate pathway is essential to RBC’s describe this pathway and explain how a defect in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase could lead to destruction of red blood cells.

6. Some people feel awful after eating falafel. Pythagoras would not eat it. The offensive ingredient in falafel is fava beans.

a. What is in fava beans that makes some people sick?
b. Pythagoras was probably deficient in an enzyme. What enzyme was deficient?
c. What does this enzyme normally do?

7. How is the Citric Acid cycle regulated?

8. Describe what you have learned about the biochemistry of SAR-Cov2.

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