Chapter 2 Reading Notes

Parent: Please mow the lawn.
Teenager: I can't.
Parent: Why not?
Teenager: I am at equilibrium with the sofa and can't break the law.

Be able to answer these questions as you read Chapter 2.

  1. Tenebria molitor worms have a high concentration of a protein that keeps their cells from exploding when they are frozen. Why does frozen water cause cells to explode?
  2. What functional group on a threonine amino acid forms hydrogen bonds with water to keep frozen water from making cells explode?
  3. What three types of work require energy in a living system?
  4. Define: steady state, equilibrium, homeostasis
  5. What reaction is the source of almost all of the energy used on earth?
  6. Give an example of a heterotroph.
  7. Give and example of an autotroph.
  8. Define reduction and oxidation reactions
  9. At equilibrium, what is the value of $\Delta G$
  10. What molecule is oxidized in the process of photophosphorylation?
  11. What molecules are reduced in the process of photophosphorylation?
  12. What provides the energy to move the electrons during photophosphorylation?
  13. What provides the energy to move the electrons during oxidative phosphorylation?
  14. What molecule is oxidized during oxidative phosphorylation?
  15. What molecule is reduced during oxidative phosphorylation.
  16. Be able to define (and think of an example) of the the following: open system, closed system, isolated system. Give examples of systems and surroundings for all of these.
  17. Be able to define the first law of thermodynamics and give an example.
  18. Be able to define the second law of thermodynamics and give an example.
  19. How is the teenager wrong about his reason for not being able to mow the lawn?
  20. What is the sign for the $\Delta G$ of a spontaneous reaction? Does energy flow to or from the system to the surroundings.
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